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Boeing 757

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Boeing 757

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Air Italy Boeing 757-200
Type Airliner
Manufacturer Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Maiden flight 1982-02-19
Introduction 1983-01-01 with Eastern Air Lines
Primary users American Airlines (143)
Delta Air Lines (121)
United Airlines (97)
United Parcel Service (75)
Produced 1982-2004
Number built 1,050
Unit cost 757-200 $65,000,000 (2002)
757-300 $80,000,000 (2002)

The Boeing 757 is an American medium to long haul commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was launched by Eastern Air Lines and British Airways to replace the Boeing 727 and entered service in 1983. Production of the 757 ended on November 28, 2005 after 1,050 had been built. The final aircraft was delivered to Shanghai Airlines. As of January 2007, a total of 1,006 Boeing 757 aircraft remain in airline service.[1]


[edit] History

Air Greenland Boeing 757-200.
Air Greenland Boeing 757-200.

While the program was a resounding financial success, sales dwindled during the late 1990s, eventually forcing Boeing to cease production.

The 757 (designated "7N7" during initial development) was designed by Boeing to replace the Boeing 727 and complement the Boeing 767 on thin routes. Boeing originally offered the airlines a stretched, re-engined 727-200, known as the 727-300, but this never received enough interest from the airlines to proceed. Early 7N7 and 757 concepts featured a "T-tail" with under-wing engines, but a conventional tail was ultimately adopted. The 757 retains the same upper-fuselage diameter as the previous Boeing 707, 727, and 737. The first Boeing 757 was delivered to Eastern Air Lines on 22 December 1982.

The 757 is used on heavy domestic routes as well as long routes between North America and Europe. Like the 727 it replaced, the 757 was designed for hot and high climates, such as Mexico City.

Royal New Zealand Air Force Boeing 757-200 (NZ7572)
Royal New Zealand Air Force Boeing 757-200 (NZ7572)

The 757 was the first Boeing airliner launched with engines produced outside the U.S., with early customers selecting the Rolls-Royce RB211. Pratt & Whitney soon offered the PW2000, launched by Delta Airlines. General Electric offered an engine option early in the program, the CF6-32, but eventually abandoned the engine due to insufficient demand.

For purposes of air traffic control spacing, 757 variants are treated as "heavies", because of their tendency to produce strong wake turbulence.

The majority of 757s are in service with U.S. carriers (64% of aircraft in service at November 2006), most notably American Airlines, the largest customer of the type. Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, Continental Airlines, US Airways, America West Airlines (now a part of the US Airways Group), and Northwest Airlines also operate large 757 fleets.

The 757 is also used for holiday/charter airlines in the UK. Thomas Cook Airlines, First Choice Airways, Monarch Airlines, Titan Airways, XL Airways, Astraeus and Thomsonfly operate over 70 aircraft. British Airways profitably runs the aircraft on short routes such as London to Manchester (150 miles) and London to Edinburgh and Glasgow (350 miles), while other airlines have used the 757 for intercontinental routes.

Delta Air Lines Boeing 757-232 at  LAX in August 2003
Delta Air Lines Boeing 757-232 at LAX in August 2003

Throughout the program, some viewed the 757 as "too much aircraft" for the role of a 727 replacement. With 20% more seats and a 50% longer range than the 727-200, the 757-200 was clearly not a like-for-like replacement. The nomenclature of the 757-200 suggests that Boeing had considered a smaller 757-100 variant. However, the 757-200 that entered production was too heavy for a shrunken variant, leaving a significant gap between the 757-200 and the 737-300. Boeing soon offered the 737-400 as a stopgap solution. However, when the Airbus A320 (which offered more range than the 737-400) entered service, sales of the 737-400 took a downturn, and some airlines began to consider the A320 as a 727 replacement. In reality, the gap left by the discontinuation of the 727-200 was not yet filled by Boeing until the release of the Boeing 737-800, which is most similar in size to the 727-200 and offers comparable range.

The 757 maintains competitive economics with newer short haul aircraft like the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 product lines, following the trend of larger aircraft having lower seat/mile cost. However, changing market conditions do not necessarily favor larger units of capacity. Should passenger loads fall, the smaller 737 and A320 expose the airline to less financial risk. For those airlines in need of large capacity, the A321 and 737-900ER have lower trip cost, albeit with slightly fewer seats and less range. These airplanes fulfill the requirements of 90% of the routes served by the 757, and provide an alternative for airlines already operating 737 and A320 fleets.

The 1,050th and last 757, destined for Shanghai Airlines, rolled off the production line at Renton on October 28, 2004.[2] In the short term, the 757-200 has been succeeded by the 737-900ER. Boeing believes the 737-900ER will be a suitable 757-200 replacement for most passenger applications, though the 737-900ER does not have the hot and high capacity of the 757 family. In the long term, the 757 is to be succeeded by the Y1. The 757-300 is being succeeded by the Boeing 787 widebody. Airbus has not yet announced future models in the 757 category, but currently the A321 is offered.

[edit] Variants

British Airways Boeing 757-200
British Airways Boeing 757-200
Pluna Boeing 757-200
Pluna Boeing 757-200

There are two variants of the 757. The 757-200 was the original, launched in 1979 with introduction into service in 1983. The 757-300 was launched in 1996 with introduction into service in 1999.

[edit] 757-200

The 757-200 is the definitive version and forms the majority of 757s sold. It shares its fuselage cross section with the smaller 727 and 737. Boeing positioned the plane above the 737 and as an eventual replacement for the 727. At first it was meant to be a little shorter in length. In the end it was positioned not only above the 737, but also the 727.

This variant can carry 228 passengers in a single class. However, with a seat pitch of 29" it can carry a maximum of 234 passengers. This configuration is also the FAA limit for the aircraft due to emergency exit rules.

The -200 was available in two different door configurations. One version used three standard doors per side with an additional, smaller door aft of the wing on each side for emergency evacuations. All eight door locations are equipped with inflatable evacuation slides. The alternate version is equipped with three standard doors per side (two towards the front and one at the aft of the cabin) with two "plug-type" overwing exits per side replacing the smaller door aft of the wing.

The 757-200 introduced an interior that became standard on all narrowbody Boeing aircraft (including the Boeing 737 Classics) until the release of the Next Generation 737, which introduced an updated interior borrowing elements from the Boeing 777-style interior.

[edit] 757-200PF and 757-200SF freighters

This proved to be a popular model after it was launched in 1985 and delivered in 1987 to UPS. The basic maximum takeoff weight of the 757PF is 250,000 pounds (113,400 kilograms), with an option for 255,000 pounds (115,600 kilograms). Other customers for the 757-200PF were Ethiopian Airlines and Challenge Air Cargo.

The 757PF has no passenger windows or doors and no interior amenities. A large main-deck cargo door is installed in the forward area of the fuselage on the left-hand side. The flight crew boards the aircraft through a single entry door installed immediately aft of the flight deck on the left side of the aircraft.

The interior of the main-deck fuselage has a smooth fiberglass lining. A fixed rigid barrier installed in the front end of the main deck serves as a restraint wall between the cargo and the flight deck. A sliding door in the barrier permits access from the flight deck to the cargo area.

Up to 15 containers or pallets, each measuring 88 by 125 inches (223 by 317 centimeters) at the base, can be accommodated on the main deck of the 757PF. Total main-deck container volume is 6,600 cubic feet (187 cubic m) and the two lower holds of the airplane provide 1,830 cubic feet (51.8 cubic m) for bulk loading. These provide a combined maximum revenue payload capability of 87,700 pounds (39,780 kilograms) including container weight. When carrying the maximum load, the 757PF has a range of about 2,900 nautical miles (5,371 kilometers).

Many former passenger 757-200s have been converted into 757-200 SF (Special Freighters), mainly for DHL. This conversion involves adding a cargo door on the left forward fuselage (identical to the 757-200PF), and removing all passenger amenities. All but the two forward cabin doors are sealed shut, and cabin windows are deleted. In September 2006, FedEx Express launched a US $2.6 billion fleet renewal initiative based on retiring its Boeing 727 aircraft acquiring second-hand Boeing 757's. Converted 757's are expected to enter service between 2008 and 2016.[3].

[edit] 757-200M

This model was launched for Royal Nepal airlines. It is a convertible version where the seats can be removed in order to place cargo on the main deck. Nepal needed a plane that operate from high altitide airfields. and, having low passenger traffic, they also were in need of a plane that could be converted to a freighter. Boeing saw this as an opportunity to showcase its 757. The 737 and 747 convertibles had proved popular and saw a market potential for the 757-200M. However only one example was ever ordered, delivered in 1988 to Royal Nepal whom still operate it under the registration 9N-ACB.

Other versions such as a 757-200ER were proposed, but never launched. However improvements such as winglets are offered for those upgrading their fleets. Total production was 914 757-200, 80 757-200PF, and 1 757-200M. In January 2007 a total of 951 Boeing 757-200 aircraft remain in airline service. The largest operators of the aircraft include: American Airlines (140), Delta Air Lines (121), United Airlines (96), United Parcel Service (75), Northwest Airlines (50), Continental Airlines (41), US Airways (41), China Southern Airlines (25), DHL Air (21), Thomsonfly (18), Thomas Cook Airlines (15) and Icelandair (14). Some 88 other airlines also operate smaller numbers of the type.[1]

[edit] 757-300

Thomas Cook Airlines Boeing 757-300
Thomas Cook Airlines Boeing 757-300

The 757-300 is a 23.4 ft stretched version of the -200, that first flew in August 1998. The 757-300 has the capacity to seat 289 passengers in a 29" pitch one class cabin, though the highest configuration in airline service is 280 seats, as operated by Thomas Cook Airlines. The fuel capacity was not increased and therefore the range was reduced to 6,287 km or 3,395 nm. 55 were ordered and delivered. This model has 8 standard doors, with 4 over-the-wing exit doors, 2 on either side. This model also features the interior of the Next Generation 737, which blends aspects of the 757-200 interior with the Boeing 777-style interior. It has proved popular with charter airlines for its efficiency and dense capacity however most airlines shied away from it. They cited its lack of range and very long yet thin fuselage as their main reason.[citation needed]

For Boeing to have increased the fuel capacity, it had to strengthen the undercarriage and other areas to increase the MTOW. The 757-300 series was available for purchase with two engine options: either 191.7kN (43,100lb) Rolls Royce RB-211-535E4-B turbofans, or 195.1kN (43,850lb) Pratt & Whitney PW-2043 turbofans. In the end, only Northwest Airlines ordered the 757-300 with the Pratt & Whitney engines, making them unique among the series. Boeing decided against further investment in the 757 family and focussed efforts on the 737 Next Generation series (specifically the 737-900ER which Boeing believes will be a suitable 757-200 replacement for most passenger applications) and the Boeing 787, which Boeing believes, in smaller versions, will substitute for larger versions of the 757 family.

In January 2007 all 55 Boeing 757-300 aircraft remain in airline service with Arkia Israel Airlines (2), ATA Airlines (4), Condor Airlines (13), Continental Airlines (17), Icelandair (1), Northwest Airlines (16) and Thomas Cook Airlines (2)[1]

[edit] Special customers

The C-32, a variant of the 757, is the usual transportation for the Vice President of the United States.
The C-32, a variant of the 757, is the usual transportation for the Vice President of the United States.

The 757 has also found itself in private and government service. The United States Air Force has fitted 757s for VIP transport duties: designated C-32, these aircraft are often used to transport the Vice President of the United States under the callsign "Air Force Two". The Royal New Zealand Air Force has two 757s that are used for transporting troops and VIPs.

One 757 is also serving as the Presidential aircraft in Argentina, with the military serial Tango 01, and another one is also serving in the VIP and Presidential transport role in Mexico. A Boeing 757 is also used by the royal family of Saudi Arabia as a flying hospital.

Senator John Kerry used a chartered 757-200 from TransMeridian Airlines nicknamed Freedom Bird as his campaign jet during the 2004 U.S. presidential election.[1]

At least three 757s are in use as private aircraft, one by supermarket magnate Ronald Burkle, and two by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. Allen has one for personal use, tail number N757AF. The other, tail number N756AF, he purchased to serve as team aircraft for the Portland TrailBlazers and the Seattle Seahawks, both of which he owns.

[edit] Winglet upgrades

A Continental Airlines 757-200WL with winglets takes off.
A Continental Airlines 757-200WL with winglets takes off.

Although production has ceased, blended winglets are available from Aviation Partners Inc. as a retrofit to increase fuel efficiency and range.[4] Aviation Partners claims improvements of 5% on fuel efficiency,[5] and 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) on range. Winglets on the 757 have only been approved for the -200 series as 757-200WL and are pending approval for the -300 series.

On March 9, 2005, the first Boeing 757-200WL for Continental Airlines made its first flight. On May 23, 2005, the 757-200WL became certified by FAA. At the time Continental Airlines ordered 11 winglet sets, with options for their remaining of 757-200 fleet. Icelandair ordered 7 winglet sets and 15 options for their entire fleet of 757-200.[citation needed]

[edit] Specifications

Model 757-200 757-200F 757-300
Cockpit crew Two
Passengers 200 (2-class)
238 (1-class)
N/A 243 (2-class)
289 (1-class)
Length 47.32 m (155 ft 3 in) 54.47 m (178 ft 7 in)
Wheelbase 18.29 m (60 ft) 22.35 m (73 ft 4 in)
Wingspan 38.05 m (124 ft 10 in)
Wing Sweepback 25°
Wing Aspect Ratio 7.8
Height 13.56 m (44 ft 6 in)
Cabin Width 3.54 m (11 ft 7 in)
Cabin Length 36.09 m (118 ft 5in) 43.21 m (141 ft 8 in)
Max. take-off weight 115,680 kg
(255,000 lb)
123,600 kg
(272,500 lb)
Cruise speed .80 Mach
Range, loaded 7,222 km (3,900 nm)
200WL: 7,600 km (4,100 nm)
5,834 km (3,150 nm) 6,421 km (3,467 nm)
Max. fuel 43,490 L (11,489 US gal) 42,680 L (11,276 US gal) 43,400 L (11,466 US gal)
Service ceiling 12,800 m (42,000 ft)
Engines (2×) Rolls-Royce RB211, PW2037, PW2040, PW2043 turbofan engines,

rated at 36,600 lbf (163 kN) to 43,500 lbf (193 kN) thrust each

[edit] 757 Sales

[edit] Orders

 2003   2002   2001   2000   1999   1998   1997   1996   1995   1994   1993   1992   1991 
7 0 37 43 18 50 44 59 13 12 33 35 50
 1990   1989   1988   1987   1986   1985   1984   1983   1982   1981   1980   1979   1978 
95 166 148 46 13 45 2 26 2 3 64 0 38

[edit] Deliveries

 2005   2004   2003   2002   2001   2000   1999   1998   1997   1996   1995   1994   1993 
2 11 14 29 45 45 67 54 46 42 43 69 71
 1992   1991   1990   1989   1988   1987   1986   1985   1984   1983   1982   1981   1980 
99 80 77 51 48 40 35 36 18 25 2 0 0

[edit] Incidents

As of November 2006:

  1. 02OCT1990 Registration: B-2812, Carrier: China Southern, Fatalities: 46 on board, Approximate Location: Guangzhou-Baiyun Airport, China
  2. 20DEC1995 Registration: N651AA, Carrier: American Airlines, Fatalities: 160 on board, Approximate Location: Buga, Colombia
  3. 06FEB1996 Registration: TC-GEN, Carrier: Birgenair, Fatalities: 189 on board, Approximate Location: Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic
  4. 02OCT1996 Registration: N52AW, Carrier: AeroPeru, Fatalities: 70 on board, Approximate Location: Lima, Peru
  5. 14SEP1999 Registration: G-BYAG, Carrier: Britannia Airways, Fatalities: None, Approximate Location: Gerona-Costa Brava Airport, Spain
  6. 11SEP2001 Registration: N591UA, Carrier: United Airlines, Fatalities: 44 on board, Approximate Location: Shanksville, Pennsylvania, United States
  7. 11SEP2001 Registration: N644AA, Carrier: American Airlines, Fatalities: 64 on board and 125 on ground, Approximate Location: The Pentagon, Arlington, Virginia, United States
  8. 21JUL2002 Registration: A9C-DHL, Carrier: DHL Aviation, Fatalities: 2 on board, Approximate Location: Überlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c Boeing 757 Reference Site, 02 January 2007
  2. ^ Boeing Marks Completion of its 757 Commercial Airplane Program
  3. ^ FedEx Fleet Plans.
  4. ^ "Blended Winglets." Faye, R.; Laprete, R.; Winter, M. Aero, No. 17., Boeing.
  5. ^ Blended Winglets and their benefits, Boeing, March/April 2006

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